Tonsillitis

What is Tonsillitis?

Tonsillitis is a disorder involving inflammation of the tonsils. There are two tonsils, situated on either side of the back of the throat and they form part of the body's immune system.

tonsils

When the main site of infection is within the tonsils: they swell, become red and inflamed and may show a surface coating of white spots.

Tonsillitis is extremely common in children and young people, but it can occur at any age. The characteristics of the disease are pain in the throat and trouble swallowing.

What are the signs and symptoms of tonsillitis?

  • Pain in the throat (sometimes severe) that may last more than 48 hours and be associated with difficulty in swallowing. The pain may spread to the ears.
  • The throat is reddened, the tonsils are swollen and may be coated or have white spots on them.
  • Possibly a high temperature.
  • Swollen lymph glands under the jaw and in the neck.
  • Headache.
  • Loss of voice or changes in the voice.

What complications may arise?

Usually a throat infection, such as tonsillitis, causes no trouble and only lasts about a week. But the following complications can arise:

  • A secondary infection may occur in the middle ear or sinuses.
  • If the sore throat is due to a streptococcus infection, there may be a rash (scarlet fever).
  • An uncommon complication is a throat abscess that occurs usually only on one side. If sufficiently large this can need surgical drainage (Quinsy throat).
  • In very rare cases, diseases like rheumatic fever or a particular kidney disease (glomerulonephritis) can occur. This is much less commonly observed now than it was several decades ago.

Treatment

Medicines

In the vast majority of people, infection caused by a virus infection need only be treated with paracetamol (eg Calpol, Panadol) to bring the temperature down. Aspirin (eg Disprin) is also useful, but should not be given to children under 16 years of age, unless on the advise of a doctor.

In a small minority of patients, tonsillitis caused by bacteria is treated with penicillin or erythromycin (eg Erythroped) if the person is allergic to penicillin. If antibiotics are prescribed, it's important to complete the full course, or the infection may not be cured.

Antibiotics are advisable for immunocompromised patients, eg those receiving chemotherapy.

Surgery

Surgery to remove the tonsils (Tonsillectomy) may be necessary for those patients suffering from repeated, severe infections (five or more per year) that refuse to respond to treatment and significantly interfere with their school or work schedule.

 tonsillectomy

Additional information